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Intermediate

Reason or Concession: Subordinator or Preposition?

The subordinators   dependent clause markers    since and because are followed by a clause.  The clause expresses cause or reason.
 
Example:
The prepositions due to and because of also express cause or reason, but like all prepositions they are followed by nouns.  

Example:  
The subordinators although, even though, and though introduce concession clauses.  When a dependent clause begins with one of these subordinators, the main clause expresses an unexpected or surprising result.

Example:
The prepositions despite and in spite of also express concession.  The main clause in the sentence expresses unexpected or surprising results.

Select the subordinator or preposition that logically fits the sentences below.   You can then listen to each sentence after selecting the correct answer.

1. [...] the Oakland Raiders had a great season in 2002, their 2003 season was grim   disappointing, very bad    from the start.
             In spite of        Although        Because


2. [...] a shoulder injury in a game against Kansas City, Rich Gannon was put on injured reserve, sidelining   made unable to play due to injury    their star quarterback for the season.
             Despite        Because        Due to


3. Gannon, who turned 38 in December 2003, was a high-performing quarterback [...] his age.
             in spite of        because of        even though


4. The injury was all the more painful [...] it put his six-year $54 million contract in jeopardy   in danger of being lost   .
             although        because of        since


5. The backup   replacement or sub    quarterback for the raiders was lost for the season during the following game [...] an injury.
               because        because of        despite    


6. [...] intense physical conditioning   hard workouts   , 22 players who started in the opening game of the season had missed a total of 33 games by mid-November.
             Because of        Although        In spite of   


7. [...] the high expectations for the Raiders' 2003 season, their health and ability to play were compromised    harmed or damaged    from the start.
             Despite        Even though        Because of     


8. A linebacker was put on injured reserve [...]  three concussions   injury to the brain    he suffered during the third week of the season.
             since        due to        in spite of


9. [...] the Raiders had hoped Gannon could return and turn their season around   start winning again   , he was incapable of even throwing the ball.
             Though        Since        Despite      
           

10. [...] their dwindling  decreasing   list of healthy players, the Raiders' coach still hoped members of the practice squad  nonstarting players  could help get the team back on track    start winning again   .
         Because of        Despite        Because


11. Like Rich Gannon, many aging   getting older     football players want to go on playing [...] the pain.
             even though        because of        despite     


12.  [...] they push their bodies to the limit, many football players have injuries that plague   bother or harm    them all their lives.  
               Because        Although        In spite of


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Content development by Kathleen Hanson, San Jose City College.
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